Is there a factor that promotes early aging in the brain? Is that the factor that predicts how well you will age?some people live productive lives in their old age and  others are battered and broken by life but why the disparity?The benefit bestowed upon by exercise can be traced back to the  improved cardiovascular status which reduces the incidence of heartattacks and Strokes but how can that support the brain benefits of exercise?

People who do regular exercise do better at tests testing long-term memory, reasoning, attention, problem-solving, even so-called fluid-intelligence tasks but not on short term memory but an association doesn’t necessarily mean a cause so what the researchers do?So what they did was they recruited people who didn’t exercise and tested them and when these couch potatoes enrolled in some kind of aerobic exercise routines all their mental capabilities as seen via tests improved.In one recent study, children jogged for 30 minutes two or three times a week. After 12 weeks, their cognitive performance had improved significantly compared with pre-jogging levels.The Gold standard aerobic exercise is 2/3 times a week.Your liftime risk of dementia is also cut in half by aerobic exercise lowers your risk of Alzheimer’s by 60%.20-minute walk each day, and you can cut your risk of having a stroke by 57%!

Exercise causes the release of serotonin,dopamine and norepinephrine.In one experiment, exercise was equally beneficial to an antidepressant.Experiments have proven that for both anxiety and depression exercise is effective in the long run.A recent study recruiting over 10,000 British civil servants between the ages of 35 and 55, examining exercise habits and grading them as low, medium, or high. Those with low levels of physical activity were more likely to have poor cognitive performance. Fluid intelligence, which measures problem solving ability was particularly affected.Dr. Antronette Yancey has done a lot of research on children’s academic success and their ability to focus is increased by exercise.Food has glucose that is absorbed in the intestines and then the glucose is converted into energy.This process also generates electrons taken from the glucose molecule those excessive electrons can bump into other molecules in our cell and transform them to noxious harmful substances and not just that also can cause mutations in our DNA.Oxygen act as a sponge sucking these free radicals. Brain uses 20% of the body’s cardiac output.Brain is highly metabolic!It uses a lot of oxygen and glucose and produces a lot of waste.

You can do the same for your brain by increasing the roads in your body, namely your blood vessels, through exercise. Exercise does not provide the oxygen and the food. It provides your body greater  access to the oxygen and the food”

Exercise promotes the release of NO causing vessels to dilate causing improved blood flow! As flow improves new blood vessels are formed which penetrate deeper and exercise improves blood flow to DENTATE GYRUS(A PART IN HIPPOCAMPUS) INVOLVED IN MEMORY .Also stimulates BDNF!it encourages neurons to form connections and also neurogenesis.It promotes new neuron formation.12 miles per day!John Medina also suggests that schools should have a 20-30 minutes session of aerobic exercise followed by 20-30 minutes of strength trainin

What if students are not sitting on desks but walking on treadmills?

Students might listen to a math lecture while walking 1 to 2 miles per hour, or study English on treadmills fashioned to accommodate a desktop”

Companies could implement it as well. Boeing is integrating exercise in its leadership training programs

Dual Representation :Our mind can give meanings to things that actually don’t possess any meaning before.We can fantasize.The capacity of language is derived from symbols.Not only that but Mathematics geometry circles and squares Dots music all depends on our ability for symbolism.Symbolic reasoning takes about 3 years to be fully functional.Through words and language we can derive information about situation.

Our improvisation instinct in which we are using new information that we have learned to a new or different situation.Rote learning is memorization which is equally important to learning.Both conceptual or our ability to apply our learning to different scenerios and rote learning is integral to learning.

In 1848, Phineas gage who was a railroad worker ,a responsible and hard-working guy ,a rod went under his eye destroying most of his prefrontal cortex changing his behavior from responsible to impulsive.So it was thought that prefrontal cortex is responsible for our executive functions namely attention, solving problems, and inhibiting emotional impulses.

Triune Brain theory.lizard/Reptilian controls breathing, heart rate, sleeping and waking mammalian fighting fleeting feeding and reproduction .The claw of the scorpion, called the amygdale, allows you to feel rage Or fear.The leg attaching the claw to the body of the scorpion is called the hippocampus.

We learned to cooperate, which means creating a shared goal that takes into account your allies’ interests as well as your own.

Our birth canal and pelvis was not proportionate to the baby’s fully developed brain as the head could not have passed the birth canal so as a result the baby had an undeveloped brain and head and it needs many years to be fully mature in comparison to other animals that are fully functional as soon as they come out.Children needs support and love as they are highly vulnerable.In animals,the alpha male is the one who’s more stronger And bigger which dominates while we humans started forming communities we learn to cooperate because if you can establish connections your power increases more as compared to when you are alone but physically strong.In order to work with someone you need to be working towards some shared goal.Theory of Mind:The ability to see other people’s mindset and their motivation.To predict our neighbors mental motives.If a teacher cannot hold student’s interest she will not be able to teach them.

The surface of your skin, for example—all 9 pounds of it—literally is deceased.It is accurate to say that nearly every inch of your outer physical presentation to the world is dead.”Eggs and cells are not much different The white of the egg is the cytoplasm while the yolk is the nucleus.Nucleus has DNA which has genes which has information to make our cells.6 feet of space occupying stuff is squuezed into a micron.DNA folded a certain way to form either liver cell or nerve cell.Electricity crackles through these moving neurons at a blinding 250 miles per hour.

Eric kandel got a nobel prize in 2000 for learning.When you learn you brain wiring changes.”As neurons learn, they swell, sway, and split. They break connections in one spot, glide over to a nearby region, and form connections with their new neighbors”.At the beginning babies have the same number of connections that adults have and then these connections are doubled or tripled and then pruned when a child is 8 years old. And then this heightened activity starts again at puberty along with pruning.

At birth we have preset neurons for breathing and heart rate which are not affected by our experience. Visual and language needs experience to fully develop.Even identical twins don’t have the same wiring.Wiring are those “road,” from interstate freeways, turnpikes, and state highways to residential streets, one-lane alleys, and dirt roads.Howard Gardner developed multiple intelligence not really an IQ thing but has atleast 7 verbal/linguistic, musical/ rhythmic, logical/mathemati-cal, spatial, bodily/ kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. George orjmann electrically stimulated and mapped their functions according to their stimulation.Epileptic tissues are adjacent to language areas (mostly)Ojemann can’t predict the function of very precise areas in advance of the surgery because no two brains are wired identically not in terms of established early and remained stable.why does school treat everyone in the same manner why expect them to learn together ? Even students of the same age has learning variability.Smaller classrooms teachers should know and have access to the child’s inner motivations they can better track an individual’s progress .Carol Conor developing a software which will detect the reading deficiencies and will cater to show exercises to match the gap

Memory plays an important role in what we pay attention to.We use our previous experiences to discern what we pay attention to

Culture also plays an important role in perception.Asians pay more attention to context and background while urban Americans donot so that might be a useful tool to remember.If something is Important /interesting = attention.novel,unusual unpredictable captures attention.The left side of our brain has a small area to focus or pay attention to on the right side of our vision while the right brain has a global sort of spotlight or things to pay attention to.We also are attentive to what goes on the inside as well.

Trinity model:setting priorities shifting attention to detect turn and do what needs to be done a/c to the stimulus. Emotionally charged persists much longer and can be recalled much more accurately.Emotionally charged memory causes dopamine to be released at the amygdala a ”chemical post it note” to cause the memory to be stored.Emotions are the “gist” of the experience not a literal record of the experience.Memory enhanced by creating associations b/w concepts.If things are organized and hierarchal it can be memorized better.Meaning before details.Same as Definitions before details.John Bransford ” how people learn” Experts work on core ideas and big concepts and then they go into details.Don’t start with big thick books start with simple IM like short books to get your basic concepts right and then delve deep into the topic.Myth of multitasking walk and talk?same time?brain’s ability to pay attention is limited.Anterior PFC shifts attention first find neurons and then activate them then disengagement.Our different brain parts for different activities cannot be activated all at once when we do two or more things together we are switching attention from one brain part to another which causes a longer finishing time and more errors so it reduces our productivity.Several 10 of a seconds is required to switch our attention to find the designated neurons.

Kim peek has no corpus callosum.He can read two pages at the same time one eye on one page. Declarative memory steps encoding, storage, retrieval, and forgetting.So far we can only measure memory by retrieval”People usually forget 90 percent of what they learn in a class within 30 days”Hermann Ebbinghaus” majority of forgetting within the first few hrs of lectures.memories have different lifespans.Repetition in cycles can actually increase the life span.Spaced learning where “space” is AF important.Learning something and retrieving it is not “memory” as there are other steps to memory.HM suffered severe head injury that culminated in him having epileptic seizures.Doc excised both of his temporal loves.He can not convert his short term memory to long term.Brenda milner a psychologist spent 40 years studying him.Cerbral cortex has 6 layers.Hippocampus converts short to long term memory.Declarative based upon hippocampus while non declarative not in hippocampus.Non declarative memory is something that you know but if you are asked about that you find it difficult to say like riding a bike but when asked to explain it would be so ”implicit” that we wouldn’t be able to talk about that “learning is something akin to pushing the “record” button (and remembering is simply pushing “playback”)is Wrong” color motion everything extracted and stored in different places.One woman suffered a stroke in a specific region of her brain and lost the ability to use written vowels”.

Semantic memory is factual memory like what’s the capital of Pakistan?While episodic memory is about me?what I had for dinner etc etc. Engram balint’s syndrome : Parietal lobe can see but cannot tell where we are.There’s no spatial awareness.The more elaborate and detailed the information is the stronger the memory .Use music and pictures to personalize it”More complexity means greater learning” initial pathways to process new information becomes permanent.Memories are distributed all over the cortex.Retrieval improved by replication of the situation in which the learning took place.

If you are trying to get information across to someone, your ability to create a compelling introduction is going to set the stage for the rest of your presentation.

Most of the events that predict whether something learned also will be remembered occur in the first few seconds of learning.

Converting short term memories to long term memories is consolidation.Everytime we are retrieving a memory we are changing the memory or reconsolidating it.Early learning period is hrs to days in which it can be easily retrieved but as the time goes by it becomes more reconstructive. “Memory may not be fixed at the moment of learning, but repetition, doled out in specifically timed intervals, is the fixative”” only 7 pieces of info for 30 secs can be kept in our working memory.Elaborative rehearsal is thinking and talking about an event immediately after the event keeps it alive.”The probability of confusion is increased when content is delivered in unstoppable, unrepeated waves, poured into students as if they were wooden forms”An activated Left inferior prefrontal cortex on fmri shows us that a vivid memory is being recalled rHarvard psychology professor Dan Schacter to say: “If you have only one week to study for a final, and only 10 times when you can hit the subject, it is better to space out the 10 repetitions during the week than to squeeze them all together.”

Long term potentiation.Someone’s perfume can turn you on?like increase ur heart rate your sweaty palms aur make your stomach queasy.Neurons learn things two hippocampal neurons one excites the other electrically while the other get excited and start firing. Early LTP lasts only for an hour.When there’s no new information no firing happens. Information repeatedly pulsed at intervals causes late LTP in which smaller and smaller inputs triggers excitation. Fast consolidation is within minutes to hours.Sensory information comes from the cortex to the hippocampus. Even when we are asleep there’s a continuous chit chat between hippocampus and cortex and hippocampal will let go of that chit chat until a memory becomes durable and stable which may take YEARS. Anterograde amnesia no long term memories no consolidation.

Declarative memory finally rests in cortex .Long term memory causes synaptic changes in the brain. 25 mins subject A is taught then 90 minutes later it’s taught again and then a third time.Every third or fourth day you will repeat what you learned earlier .Eradicate homework.You need to know things by this grade or class information should be repeated in an yearly or semi yearly basis.You need to review the information even when you enter the workplace.

Sleep occupies one third of our time.Non REM is the real resting period. Otherwise the brain is very much active.Only 20% of the sleep cycle is allocated to Non-Rem sleep. Suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus controls our Circadian rthym.Lark Chrono type wake up before 6 am and are most productive during lunch and sleep around 9.Late or owls have a lot of ” sleep debt” early childhood decides what chronotype we are .Mostly we all are much sleep do we actually need ?we don’t know. Our sleep requirements change with age, gender. Too much or too little sleep both are bad for our health.William dement a sleep researcher talked about a post lunch dip in which we need to take a nap you will be tired if you push through that like it reduces your productivity so that seista is much needed

26 min nap improves pilot efficiency by 35%.Mendeleyev came up with the periodic table idea in his sleep.When you learn a new procedure sleep over it.One night loss of sleep causes a 30% reduction in cognitive performance.

The ability to use glucose is also impaired.A healthy 30 year old after being sleep deprived for 6 days his body’s chemistry revert back to 60 year old.Sleep loss hurts attention, executive function, immediate memory, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning ability, general math knowledge.fine motor control (except,.Rat when asleep hook up electrodes to his brain and record his electrical activity and when he is learning how to navigate through a maze his electrons fire in a specific way which is replicated when he’s asleep. So when you wake him up during his slow wave sleep you can interrupt the whole consolidation process.

As teens grow up their sleep schedule changes to more owlish type so schools should be after 9 am the sleep hormones maximum in these kids so they have a tendency to sleep more especially in the morning.We adopt a different schedule as we grow older.Sleep pods are portable recliners which has light-canceling visors, noise-canceling earphones, heat-canceling circulation.In Japan they have “nap salons”.Companies would create a designated space for employees to take one half-hour nap each workday!”The relationship between stress and learning.Stress is subjective everyone’s experience with stress is different like everyone is scared of different things.No standard physiological that can make a scientist understand that you are experiencing stress as it could also be used in sex.An aroused physiological state also happens in pleasure and pain. Part 1 physiological response 2 aversiv like if you could avoid it would you?3 loss of control and predictablility .Your pulses and BP goes up due to adrenaline. When you sense stress the hypothalamus signals our adrenal glands to activate the “fight and flight” response. “cortisol” erotic goal lol to preserve our species.Most of our threats were immediate like the tiger that only lasted for seconds.Addison’s disease you wouldn’t be able to increase ur bp and will go into shock.Our stress is more chronic hectic lifes money problems etc moderate amounts in long term.Acute stress boost CVS performance. Long term more BP dysregulation cause blood vessel rough spots that changes into scars and those scars attract sticky substances to get deposited and cause clogging. Chronic stress leads to chronic MIs and chronic strokes.Stress also decreases our immune response.Acute stress is better while chronic stress is bad.People who experience chronic stress are more likely to be sick.A Transylvanian research conducted in UCLA drama department one group had happy uplifting scripts the others depressing and there blood was also tested for immune responses Hippocampus has a lot of cortisol receptors.Stressful events memories are formed instantly and they stay for a longer duration.Stressed people can’t do maths or process language that efficiently.Stressed cannot use memories to new situations.They can’t concentrate.Stress hurts declarative memory and executive (problem solving) Stress can stop neurogenesis .BDNF can be overwhelmed by a glucocorticoid surge.Turn off the genes involved in BDNF forgetfulness when you encounter severe trauma.Stress leads to depression.Some people’s genetics makes them less suceptible to stress.Blood test could also look at those genes.Stress is damaging due to the interplay between our body and unresolved marital conflict disturbing for children even kids as young as 6 months it causes more stress hormones in their urine.Powerless or cannot control.Physical health deteriorates; absenteeism and truancy increase.Burnout because of cortisol can also cause depressionFluid intelligence, problem-solving abilities (including quantitative reasoning), and memory formation are deeply affected by depression.Stress 1 high expectations 2 no control. Free family counseling at 26 at the peak of their productive years they are also forming their families which makes these years the most stressful years of their lives so families also needs counseling especially parents.Most parents don’t know how to rear their kids.

Synthesia: short circuting b/w two sensory inputs.Stimulate more senses at the same time to learn better.

Sensation capture information into electrical activity. Thalamus shuttles sense perceptions and sends it to different cortical areas. How does information from different senses gets merged in the brain? Association cortices parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes not really sensory or motor areas but bridges between them bottom up and top down.Visual system bottom up which means every word letter is analyzed the lines and everything to make a sense of the meaning of the lines and Everything and then top down start perceiving info is added or subtracted to the data stream can even alter the data stream synthesia some people see a word and then taste visual inputs influence auditory input even if there’s no sound multimodal reinforcement touch boosted visual multimedia exposure and learning. Short term memory allows the person to hold info for a short time period.People with synthesia has a photographic memory.Students learn better from words and pictures.Temporal contiguity principle: Students learn better when words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively Spatial contiguity principle: words and pictures near and simultaneously.We learn from animation and narration better than onscreen text.Smell can evoke memory.Proust effect.Odors are not so good at retrieving declarative memories.Between the eyes we have a postage stamp like olfactory lobe.Outer surface of olfactory epithelium is sensitive to the air odor molecules enter the snotty nose and brush on the protein coming out of the epithelium stimulating the nerves.Smell stimulates amygdala so it stimulates emotions.Orbitofrontal cortex above and behind your eyes involved in decision making.

Power of emotion to incite action is motivation.Vanilla smell produces positive emotions.Pair a smell with each lesson!

Visual processing dominates the perception of our world.”We actually experience our visual environment as a fully analyzed opinion about what the brain thinks is out there.”A photon shocks the retinal neurons and electrical signal is generated too wrong and simplistic ok so retina perceives information before and it sends it off through different tracks to different locations in the brain one is for movement one is for color. Thalamus is an egg shaped structure in the middle of the head.Occipital lobe put your hand on the back of your head and there you got it!After a stroke Gerte saw a sequence of static, strobe-like snapshots of the objects.ventral stream color what an object is.Dorsal stream where it’s moving.Our brain loves to make things up.Charles bonnet syndrome people sees chariots, policemen,cartoons etc .Previous experiences mould the way we see the world retina is two dimensional while world is 3D .We also have two visual fields which are upside down and backwards.Phantom limbs pain stopped a divider with two portals one for the stump and other for the functional arm divider is the mirror so when you moved your functional arm your stump moved too and your pain healed.Vision and learning and recognition memory .Pictorial superiority effect: You remember pictures rather than words it boosts memory up to 65 percent. We see words as art pieces.We try to visualize the text as we read.Words are only postage stamps delivering the object for you to unwrap,” George Bernard Shaw. Babies have Preloaded software for visual processing”Donald in Mathmagic Land” Donald introduced medina to maths which caters to the power of moving image in delivering information.More efficient transfer of information.It captures attention.Powerpoint focuses too much on words” Professionals everywhere need to know about the incredible inefficiency of text-based information and the incredible effects of images”

Chromosomes are snake like forms of DNA which contains information to make you YOU! 23 from dad 23 from mom.Two are sex chromosomes.An XX makes you female While a XY makes you male and only males can determine which sex the baby will have.Males and females are different with regard to genetic, neuroanatomical and behavioral differences. On Y chromosome only SRY determines the sex of the baby.The basic default system of an embryo is to be a female. Female deactivate one of their X chromosomes in their cells as they have two X.Cells in female embryo some activate mom’s x genes and some dad’s. BUT All boys are Mamma’s boys with respect to their X chromosome. 1500 genes are on the X chromosome. Women’s PFC fatter than men’s. PFC is for decision making.Amygdala is much larger in men.males secrete serotonin about 52%faster than females .Does size or neurotransmitters means anything? We don’t know.Invoking planet metaphors like Venus and Mars, some purport to expand perceived differences into prescriptions for relationships”

Female have a backup X if one X is defected she can ignore that. Schizophrenia more in males both hemispheres are not equal however right remembers the gist left remembers the details.In acute stress women fire up their the left amygdala.The magic elixir of forgetting is propranolol inhibits amygdala in emotional response .Women recall more emotional memories.Deborah tannen the leading researcher on men and women differences. Language and reading disorders are more common in males .Women use both of their hemispheres when they are speaking and visual processing. Women have thicker corpus collosum which is the string that binds your two hemispheres together. Women lean in, maintain eye contact when talking while boys make little eye contact but they do things physically together Higher order males push others and give orders.Hierchay is evident in males and Independent behavior highly prized.

Girls tend to decide by concensus while in boys it’s what the most dominant male said.We don’t really know if it’s the nurture or society which is causing these differences or is it nature?genes? it’s a very complex issue and we don’t really know the answer so it’s safe to say that it’s an interplay of both factors. When it comes to women being more emotional they simply have more information available to them.

We could have environments where gender differences are both noted and celebrated, as opposed to ignored and marginalized”

We are born with an Exploratory drive.Children explores the world around them by kicking it licking it.Children are scientists as they make an observation infer a hypothesis and then test the hypothesis by running experiments.In 1979, Andy Meltzoff rocked the world of infant psychology by sticking out his tongue to a 40 mins born infant which goes on to say that babies at birth have fully functional imitational system and our brains are not blank slates.Object permanenece:when we remove an object from a child’s visual field or hide it he knows its still there.Children below 2 years of age don’t have this ability for them if something disappears it disappears forever.Between 14 and 18 Months babies develop this sense that if they like something all others would not necessarily like it. But before that babies say

“”If I want it, it is mine.
If I give it to you and change my mind later, it is mine.
If I can take it away from you, it is mine.
If we are building something together,If it looks just like mine, it is mine.
If it is mine, it will never belong to anybody else, no matter what.
If it is yours, it is mine””

After 2 years of age,babies push boundaries and then see how others react.Mirror neurons are the brain cells whose activity reflect their surrounding.For example if you see someone picking up a glass certain parts of your brain will light up or get activated when you yourself pick up that glass so these neurons mirror others behavior.

That’s because our learning abilities don’t have to change as we age. We can remain lifelong learners”

“I firmly believe that if children are allowed to remain curious, they will continue to deploy their natural tendencies to discover and explore until they are 101.” Learning brings joy and mastery”By first grade, for example, children learn that education means an A. They begin to understand that they can acquire knowledge not because it is interesting, but because it can get them something”let’s learn to not get a good grade or GPA but for the countless benefits that comes along with it!!!

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